Arizona became a Territory of the United States in 1863 and over the next several months counties were organized.
Tucson, the seat of Pima County, became the capital of the Arizona Territory in 1867 and remained so for ten years.
From 1866 to 1868, Pima County business was conducted in some buildings rented from Solomon Warner.
Increased population and activity made it clear that Pima County needed a permanent courthouse.
In 1880, Southern Pacific Railroad came to Tucson which had a significant impact on population growth and business in the community. As a result, a larger courthouse was needed and additional land was purchased from stable owner and Sheriff Robert Leatherwood. On this site a second, larger courthouse was built in 1881. County Commissioners W.W. Williams, James Toole, and William S. Oury contracted with John Harlow to build the new courthouse located at the corner of Church and Pennington Streets. The courthouse was a Victorian style, two-story brick structure with a grey stone foundation. The cruciform building had two side wings topped by gable attics and a tower with a cupola surmounting the center. Called "the pride and joy of the Territory," this courthouse was used through the rest of the Territorial era. Arizona became a state February 14, 1912. The courthouse was demolished in 1927 when it no longer met the needs of the community.
The third courthouse was built on the same piece of land in 1928 at a cost of $350,000. It was a Spanish Colonial style building constructed from brick, covered by pink stucco with a large ceramic tile dome. There was some controversy about the color selected and the style of the building. During excavation a section of the old Tucson Presidio wall was uncovered. The section of the wall is on display in the Assessor's Office as a memorial to the early settler s of Tucson.